## Penelitian

**PENGARUH EFEK MULTIPLIER DAN KEPEKAAN PENGELUARAN PEMERINTAH DAERAH PROPINSI TERHADAP VARIABEL MAKROEKONOMI DI PULAU JAWA PERIODE 1994 – 2006**

**(Kasus di Propinsi DKI Jakarta, Jawa Barat, Jawa Tengah, DI Yogyakarta, Jawa Timur)**** **

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**Ade Komaludin, Iis Surgawati, ****Hani Yuliyanti**

*Jurusan Ekonomi Pembangunan Fakultas Ekonomi Universitas Siliwangi*

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*ABSTRACT *

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*The objective of this research was to know**: (a) Influence of GDRP, population number and expenditure of government of year before all to expenditure of government in Java Period of 1994 – 2006, (b) sensitivity level expenditure of government to GDRP, population number and expenditure of government of year before all in Java Period of 1994 – 2006, (c) how multiplier expenditure of government to GDRP in Java period 1994 – 2006.*

*Data used in this research was times series data of CPS and BI. Method of research used of **Linear multiple regretion models with tools of the analysis were; coefficient of determinasi (R ^{2}), *

*elasticity analysis and analysis of multiplier*

*, test of F, test of t, test autocorrelation, and test of multicolinearity by using calculation of program of SPSS.*

*Based on the data analysis, the conclution of the research were :*

*1. **Multiplier expenditure of government to GDRP to entire all Java region are unidirectional. *

*2. **Elasticity expenditure of government to GDRP, population number and expenditure of government of year before all is inelastis with relation direction which are positive *

*3. **GDRP, population number and expenditure of government of year before all have an effect on to expenditure of government in Java period of 1994 – 2006*

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*Keyword : GDRP, population number, expenditure of government.*

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**ANALISIS KEPEKAAN EKSPOR MIGAS DAN NON MIGAS TERHADAP VARIABEL MAKRO EKONOMI INDONESIA PERIODE 1994-2005**

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**Ade Komaludin, Dwi Hastuti L.K., Pipih Sulistiawati**

*Jurusan Ekonomi Pembangunan Fakultas Ekonomi Universitas Siliwangi*

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*ABSTRACT*

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*Export is a process of economical and commercial relationship between countries or internationally by selling goods and service aimed to gain profits. In this research, Oil Export and Non Oil Export variables are used as dependent variables while the Macro economy variables affecting them (Gross Domestic Product/PDB, SBI Interest, Customer Price Index/IHK and Exchange Rate) are used as independent variables.*

*According to the above mentioned, a research has been conducted with a title: “The Comparative Analysis of The Sensitivity of Oil and Non Oil Exports towards Indonesia’s Macro Economy Variables in The Period 1994-2005.” The purpose of the research is to analyze the connection among several macro economy variables (Gross Domestic Product/PDB, SBI Interest, Customer Price Index/IHK and Exchange Rate) on the oil and non oil export demand in Indonesia.*

*The research method used by the author is descriptive method using econometrics model and tested by some regression analysis means. The statistics calculation uses determination coefficient formulation, t test, F test, autocorrelation test (Durbin-Watson) using the subsidiary calculation means of Eviews 3.0 for Windows.*

*The result of this study showed that the reality occurred in Indonesia during the research period was that Oil and Non Oil export demand was extremely influenced by several macro economy variables. The result of statistical t test showed that, partially, Gross Domestic Product/PDB, SBI Interest, Customer Price Index/IHK and Exchange Rate was significantly influential towards Oil and Non Oil Export demand in Indonesia. The result of comparative analysis for Oil and Non Oil Export demand concluded the followings: Non Oil Export has better result than Oil Export. However, the mean growth percentage of Non Oil Export tends to be slower compared to that of Oil Export annually, while Oil Export has smaller volume than Non Oil Export, yet the growth percentage of Oil Export is much bigger and relatively constant year by year.*

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*Keyword:*** ***Oil Export, Non Oil Export,Gross Domestic Product, SBI Interest, Customer Price Index/IHK, Exchange *

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**ANALISIS PENGARUH LAJU PERTUMBUHAN INVESTASI ASING**

**LANGSUNG DAN UTANG LUAR NEGERI TERHADAP**

**LAJU PERTUMBUHAN EKONOMI DI INDONESIA**

**PERIODE TAHUN 1997.I – 2006.IV**

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**Ade Komaludin, Dwi Hastuti L.K., Abdul Jalil**

**Jurusan Ekonomi Pembangunan Fakultas*** Ekonomi Universitas Siliwangi*

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*ABSTRACT *

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*This research aimed to know the influence level of Foreign Direct Investment, Government Foreign Debt and Private Foreign Debt to Accelerate Economic Growth in Indonesia during period of 1997.I – 2006.IV., and also to know sensitivity level (elasticity) Accelerate Economic Growth to Economic Growth in Indonesia during period 1997.I _{ }– 2006.IV.*

*Data utilized in this research is time sequence data or quarterly data during 10 year having the character of secondary. Data obtained from Statistik Ekonomi dan Keuangan Indonesia (SEKI) BI. Method research used is model of Multiple Regression Linear with analyzer: correlation analysis (R), coefficient determination analysis (R ^{2}), and elasticity analysis, while examination taken is F test, t Test, autocorrelation Test, multicolinearity Test, and heteroscedasticity Test by using calculation program eviews.*

*From this research result shown that 47,3007 % accelerating the economic growth in Indonesia being influenced by Foreign Direct Investment, Government Foreign Debt and Private Foreign Debt while the rest 52,6993 % influenced by other factor.*

*Government Foreign Debt and Private Foreign Debt in Indonesia period 1997.I _{ }– 2006.IV. in partial is significant. But for the Foreign Direct Investment variable in partial the influence not significant to value accelerate economic growth in Indonesia period 1997.I – 2006.IV.*

*Elasticity accelerate economic growth to Foreign Direct Investment, inelastic with relation of direction are positive while Government Foreign Debt and Private Foreign Debt is inelastic with negative relation direction.*

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*Keyword: Foreign Direct Investment, Government Foreign Debtm Private Foreign Debt,Economic Growth*

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**ANALISIS PENGARUH PRODUK DOMESTIK REGIONAL BRUTO, JUMLAH PENDUDUK (PDD), DAN PEMEKARAN KOTA TERHADAP PENDAPATAN ASLI DAERAH (PAD) DI KABUPATEN CIAMIS PERIODE 1996 – 2005.**

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**Ade Komaludin, Iis Surgawati, Yudi Setiadi**

** Jurusan Ekonomi Pembangunan Fakultas Ekonomi Universitas Siliwangi**

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*ABSTRACT*

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*This research aim is to know: 1) influence GDRP, amount of resident and Rising of the town to ***PAD in Sub-Province of Ciamis during period 1996-2005 2) To know sensitivities PAD to PDRB and amount of resident in Sub-Province of Ciamis during period 1996-2005.**

*The method of Research used by descriptive method and the data used by secondary data (time series) that is obtained from office of ***BPS of Sub-Province Ciamis, analyser used by coefficient determinacy (R2), test coefficient of regression is test F and t test, while to test validity of data used (autokorelasi test, multikolinearitas test, hetrokedastis test, and normalitas test) and use elasticity analysis**

*From research result use test R2, in the reality the level influence of Product Domestic Regional Bruto of is Amount and Rising Town Resident to Original Earnings of Area in Sub-Province Ciamis year period 1996-2005 is equal to 0,95 while the rest that is 0,05 representing influence from the other factor. With the statistical examination F in the reality together showed the Product Domestic Regional Bruto, amount of resident and rising town have an effect on positive to Original Earnings of Area in Sub-Province Ciamis Period 1996-2005. For Domestic Sensitivities of Product Domestic Regional Bruto (PDRB) and amount of resident to Original Earnings of Area in Sub-Province Ciamis year period 1996-2005 were 3,55 (elastic) and 32,05 (elastic).*

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*Keyword: gross domestic regional bruto, PAD*

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**ANALISIS FAKTOR FUNDAMENTAL ****YANG MEMPENGARUHI PENGELUARAN KONSUMSI RUMAH TANGGA DI INDONESIA PERIODE TAHUN 1994 – 2005**** **

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**Ade Komaludin, Apip Supriadi, ****Eka Suwartika**

*Jurusan Ekonomi Pembangunan Fakultas Ekonomi Universitas Siliwangi*

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*A B S T R A C T*

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*The objective of this research was to know: (a) Influence of fundamental factor (national income, CPI and population number) to consumption of household in Indonesia Period 1994 – 2005, (b) sensitivity level consume household to factor (earnings of national, IHK and residents amount) in Indonesia Period 1994 – 2005.*

*Data used in this research was times series data of BPS. Method Research used model of **Linear Multiple Regretion with tools of the analysis were; correlation analysis (R), coefficient of determinasi (R ^{2}), and elasticity analysis, test of F, test of t, Test autocorrelation, and test of multicolinearity by using calculation of program of SPSS.*

*Based on the data analysis, the cone of the research were :*

*1. National income, CPI and population number expenditure of consumption in Indonesia period of year 1994 – 2005 *

*2. Elasticity expenditure of household consumption to national income, CPI and population number in Indonesia period 1994 – 2005, for national income and population number is elastic with relation direction which are positive. While for CPI is elastic with relation direction which are positive*

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*Key words :*** National income, CPI and population number**

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**ANALISIS FAKTOR FUNDAMENTAL YANG MEMPENGARUHI IMPOR BERAS DI INDONESIA PERIODE TAHUN 1994 – 2005.**

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**Ade Komaludin, ****Aso ****Sukarso, Handi Tristia Agung Haryono Tunggal**

*Jurusan Ekonomi Pembangunan Fakultas Ekonomi Universitas Siliwangi*

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**ABSTRACT**

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*Import is a function basically showing the relationship between the nation and its National Income. In this theme the writer takes the rice for subject in import demand analysis and the variable of rice Import is influenced by some macro variable.*

*An according to this case, this research therefore has taken the title: “The Analysis of Fundamental Factor Affecting Rice Import in Indonesia 1994-2005 Period”. The aim of this research is to analyze the relationship between some macroeconomics variable (National Income, Riil Exchange Rate and Domestic Price (measured with Consumer Price Index / CPI) against the demand of rice import in Indonesia.*

*The research method used by the writer is descriptive method by using econometrical model and tested by some regression analysis means. The statistical Calculations uses determination coefficient formulation, t test, f test, autocorrelation test (Durbin-Watson) by using additional calculation appliance of Eviews 3.0.*

*The result of this study indicates the fact happened in Indonesia during the period of research is that the import demand of rice is very much influenced by some macro economics variables (National Incomes, Riil Exchange Rate and Domestic Price). The test r**esult of statistics t shows that the partial National Income and Domestic Price have an effect on Import of Rice demand in Indonesia significantly and elastically, while Nominal Exchange Rate remains insignificant and inelastic. The test result of statistics F shows that altogether there are significant influences from some macro economic variables (National Income, Riil Exchange Rate and Domestic Price) on the import demand of rice in Indonesia with 5% of significance degree.*

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*Keyword: national income. Real exchange rate, import *

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**ANALISIS PENGARUH PDB, STOK MODAL DAN TINGKAT UPAH TERHADAP PENYERAPAN TENAGA KERJA DI INDONESIA**

** PERIODE 1993 – 2005**

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**Ade Komaludin, Jumri, Andi Muhammad Yuliardi**

*Jurusan Ekonomi Pembangunan Fakultas Ekonomi Universitas Siliwangi*

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*ABSTRACT*

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*The objective of this research is : (a) To know influence of GDP, capital stok, and wage rates to absorbtion of labour in Indonesia period 1993 – 2005, (b) to know sensitivity level (elastisitas) absorbtion of labour to GDP, capital stok and wage rates.*

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*Data used in this research is times series data which get from Yearly Report Indonesian Bank, and Statistic Committed Centre. Method in this research use a descriptive method by using model of econometric and tested by some analyzer of regression. Method research is used a Multiple Regression Linier Model which instruments analysis : Correlation Analysis (R), Coefficient Determinacy Analysis (R ^{2}), whereas examination other which is used f-test, t-test, normality test and Durbin Watson test which used calculation SPSS 11.5 for Windows program.*

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*Pursuant to result analysis and data processing which is writer do, can be pulled by some research results as following :*

*1. Gross Domestic Product, capital stok and wage rates by together have an effect on to absorbtion of labour in Indonesia period 1993 – 2005 *

*2. Elasticity of GDP, capital stok and wage rates to absorbtion of labour in Indonesia period 1993 – 2005, for GDP is inelastys with relation which are positive, capital stok are inelastys with negative relation direction, while for wage rates are inelastys with relation direction which are positive.*

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*Keyword: GDP, capital stok, wage rates, labour*

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###### ANALISIS BEBERAPA VARIABEL YANG MEMPENGARUHI TAX EFFORT DI INDONESIA PERIODE 1983-2004

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**Ade Komaludin, Andi Rustandi, Achmad Anwari**

*Jurusan Ekonomi Pembangunan Fakultas** Ekonomi Universitas Siliwangi*

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**ABSTRACT**

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**The mean of research is to look how much influence of ratio of export to GDP, ratio of import to GDP, ratio of agriculture sector to GDP, ratio of mining and quarrying sector to GDP, ratio of manufacturing sector to GDP, ratio of trading, hotel and restaurant sector to GDP, ratio of transportation and communication sector to GDP, ratio of services sector to GDP to Tax Effort and what variable is most dominant influences to Tax Effort in Indonesia pheriod 1983-2004. **

**The research method of this thesis is descriptive method and data that used is the time series skunderly data that found from Bank Indonesia report and Badan Pusat Statistic report pheriod 1983-2004.**

**The research shows that influence of : ratio of export to GDP, ratio of import to GDP, ratio of agriculture sector to GDP, ratio of mining and quarrying sector to GDP, ratio of manufacturing sector to GDP, ratio of trading, hotel and restaurant sector to GDP, ratio of transportation and communication sector to GDP, ratio of services sector to GDP to Tax Effort in Indonesia pheriod 1983-2004 as much 93,0882% and 6,9118% influenced by other factors.**

**The most dominant variable that influences tax Effort in Indonesia pheriod 1983-2004 is ratio of transportation and communication sector to GDP, because its value of coefficient regression (3,830929) is biggest than oters variables **

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**Keyword: export, import, gross domestic product, tax effort**

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**PENGARUH STOK KAPITAL DAN TENAGA KERJA TERHADAP PRODUK DOMESTIK BRUTO SEKTOR PERTANIAN DAN SEKTOR INDUSTRI DI INDONESIA PERIODE 1980 – 2004**

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**Ade Komaludin, Iis Surgawati, Subhan Insyani**

**Jurusan Ekonomi Pembangunan Fakultas*** Ekonomi Universitas Siliwangi*

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*ABSTRACT*

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*Agricultural sector and industrial sector in the reality can stay at a period of/to crisis, but that way in its growth show the existence of tendency of degradation of contribution relative to GDP. This Situation represents one of characteristic of tranformation structural which have happened at economy of Indonesia where role relative agricultural sector and its contribution industrial sector at GDP decreased and also absorbtion of downhill labour progressively. Explainted** **of **invesment at agricultural sector expected can push increase of output and request of input so that have an effect on to increase of earnings and extension of job opportunity later on can push growth of economic and quicken of economic.*

*Result of analysis indicate that 1) Capital stock in general affect positive and significant to GDP period 1980-2004 in Indonesia. Result of analysis also indicate that economic crisis at mid 1997 in the reality affect and negativity of significant to GDP, however its influence do not significant to GDP agricultural sector and of GDP industrial sector. Labour variable do not affect negative significant even to GDP industrial sector, but its influence to GDP and of GDP positive agricultural sector. This matter indicate that very low labour productivity, so that addition of labour amount do not affect at product increase; 2) Pursuant to result of calculation can be concluded that level of elasticity of GDP to variable of capital stock equal to 2,14 and influence of this variable have the character of elastic while labour have elasticity equal to 0,67 and its influence have the character of inelastic. Whereas agricultural sector capital stock have elasticity equal to 2,95 to GDP agricultural sector but influence of this variable have the character of elastic, while elasticity of GDP agricultural sector to agricultural sector labour equal to 0,89 and have the character of inelastic. For the variable of industrial sector kapital stok have elasticity value equal to 3,05 to GDP industrial sector and have the character of elastic, however industrial sector labour variable show influence which is inelastic with elasticity value equal to – 0,33 to GDP industrial sector.*

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*Keyword: Capital stock, GDP, Labour*

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**ANALISIS FUNGSI PRODUKSI SUSU SAPI PERAH**

**DI DESA GURANTENG KECAMATAN PAGERAGEUNG**

**KABUPATEN TASIKMALAYA**

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** Ade Komaludin, Budhi Wahyu Fitri, Kusyono A.H**

*Jurusan Ekonomi Pembangunan Fakultas Ekonomi Universitas Siliwangi*

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*ABSTRACT*

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** The writer does of the research at Guranteng sub district of Pagerageung because the people in the place life to keep the cows.**

*This place has good climate natural and environment so it’s support for farming sector, so, the farming is very important at economical of Indonesia country that why almost the people life to farming.*

*The aim of research to know the influence production factor of cow’s milk at Guranteng sub district Pagerageung Tasikmalaya Regency’s know the degree elasticity using of input production factor of cow’s milk at guranteng sub district Pagerageung Tasikmalaya regency. Method or instru analysis that using it is Cobb-Douglas.*

* Based on the analysis, the writer can summary it, that : the using input production factor (feed, tools and cow’s quality) it has influencing to ward cow product. While the using input production factor (the large of place, medicine, and labour) it has not influence toward result of cow’s milk and its influence the using of input production factor (the large place, medicine, feed, quantity of cow and labour) to ward result milk at Guranteng sub district of Pagerageung – Tasikmalaya regency. They significant influenced and the elasticity result of milk product toward using input production factor (the large of place, medicine, tools, quantity of cow’s and quantity of labour). It is and inelasticity toward positive relation.*

* The deal of output to ward input production factor if it correlate with scale result is decreasing return to scale with positive correlation. So, the writer can get the deaf degree of output toward input production factor it correlated with result scale, it is mean that the assumption decreasing the out put is smaller than decreasing of input so of degree toward decreasing returns to scale.*

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*Keyword : Decreasing return to Scale ,inelasticity, feed, tools, cow’s quality*

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